Ghostwriters will often spend from several months to a full year researching, writing, and editing and works for a client, and they are paid based on a price per hour, per word or per page, with a flat fee, or a percentage of the royalties of the sales, or some combination thereof. Some ghostwriters charge for articles "$4 per word and more depending on the complexity" of the article. Madeleine Morel states that the average ghostwriter's advance for work for major book publishers is "between $40,000 and $70,000". These benchmark prices are mirrored approximately in the film industry by the Writer's Guild, where a Minimum Basic Agreement gives a starting price for the screenplay writer of $37,073 (non-original screenplay, no treatment).
A search on Taobao for thesis ghostwriting reveals hundreds of shops offering to help. In addition to ghostwriting, some shops help to publish the thesis in a journal, which is essential for Chinese academics seeking professional ranks and titles.
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In some cases, ghostwriters are allowed to share credit. For example, a common method is to put the client/author's name on a book cover as the main byline (by ) and then to put the ghostwriter's name underneath it (as told to ). Sometimes this is done in lieu of pay or in order to decrease the amount of payment to the book ghostwriter for whom the credit has its own intrinsic value. Also, the ghostwriter can be cited as a coauthor of a book, or listed in the movie or film credits when having ghostwritten the script or screenplay for a film production.